Sunny’s Corner: Chapter 12 – Budaya Kimjang


Halo! Ini Sunny.


Apakah Anda tahu kata ‘Kimjang’? Sederhananya, Kimjang adalah kegiatan membuat kimchi secara besar-besaran pada akhir musim gugur dan awal musim dingin. Siapa pun yang tertarik dengan budaya Korea tentunya tahu apa itu Kimchi. Namun bagi pembaca yang belum mengetahuinya, saya akan memperkenalkan secara singkat tentang Kimchi. Kimchi adalah salah satu makanan fermentasi terbaik di Korea, dan merupakan makanan representatif Korea yang dibuat dengan mencampur sawi putih dan lobak dengan ikan asin, bubuk cabai merah, bawang hijau, bawang putih dan jahe.


Budaya Kimjang adalah salah satu Warisan Dunia UNESCO. Ada banyak makanan yang diasinkan dengan sayuran di negara lain, tetapi ada sangat sedikit budaya di mana orang membuat dan menyimpan makanan yang sama pada waktu-waktu tertentu. Meskipun sekarang semakin sulit melihat orang-orang di desa berkumpul membuat kimchi bersama karena jumlah keluarga yang semakin berkurang, tetapi orang-orang masih melakukan kimjang di dalam keluarga mereka masing-masing.


Jika demikian, sejak kapankah kimjang dimulai?

Sebenarnya, tidak diketahui secara tepat sejak kapan kimjang dimulai. Namun dalam antologi puisi dan prosa ‘Dongkimisangkukjib’ yang diterbitkan pada tahun 1241 di zaman kerajaan Goryeo, tertulis “jika memasukkan lobak dan bumbu bubuk, kita bisa memakannya di musim panas dan dapat disiapkan untuk disantap di musim dingin dengan mengasinkannya.” Catatan-catatan ini menunjukkan bahwa budaya kimjang telah ada sejak tahun 1241. Sejarahnya benar-benar panjang, ya?



Satu hal lagi yang membuat kita penasaran! Mengapa orang korea ingin melakukan kimjang di akhir musim gugur atau awal musim dingin?

Sekarang kita bisa mendapatkan makanan yang diinginkan di musim apa pun. Namun tidak demikian di masa lalu. Pada zaman dulu, tidak mudah mendapatkan sayuran segar atau bahan-bahan makanan lainnya karena cuaca yang dingin. Jadi ketika itu kimchi dibuat dan disimpan di awal musim dingin, sehingga berkembanglah kebiasaan untuk menyantapnya selama musim dingin. Selain itu, serat dan vitamin dalam sawi putih dan lobak membantu menjaga tubuh tetap sehat di musim dingin.’


Pertanyaan terakhir! Sekarang ada kulkas untuk menyimpan kimchi, tetapi bagaimana menyimpan kimchi di masa lalu?

Di masa lalu, ketika membuat kimchi orang-orang menggali tanah dan mengubur kimchi yang telah disimpan di dalam kendi besar. Suhu tanah di musim dingin berkisar minus satu derajat sehingga berfungsi sebagai kulkas Kimchi.

Berkat kebijaksanaan nenek moyang inilah banyak orang Korea masih bisa menikmati kimchi sampai hari ini. Kini, dengan warisan budaya kimjang yang telah ada selama berratus-ratus tahun ini, orang Korea sibuk dengan persiapan Kimjang untuk menyambut musim dingin.

Jika ada kesempatan, lain kali saya akan memperkenalkan jenis-jenis kimchi.

Terima kasih telah membaca hari ini.


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